In linux you have control over not just commands input or outputs, but also over execution. You may run commands while a job runs in background. You may cancel the commands before they finish executing, or you may interrupt a command to be started again later from where you left off. Background operations are particulary useful for long jobs such as apt update or apt upgrade, where instead of waiting at the terminal until the job execution completes, you can place it in the background. Meanwhile, you can continue executing other linux commands in foreground.
Jobs: Background, Kills and Interruptions
Running in background:
When you place a job in the background, a user job number, placed in square brackets and a system process number is displayed.
- The user job number is the number by which the user references the job.
- The system process number is the number by which system identifies the job. You can place multiple commands in background. Each is classified as a job and is given a number. The queued jobs can be listed using jobs command.
The jobs can be referenced using % symbol followed by job number. Or you can give the job name string, if it’s a unique job name. For Example -
$ fg %lpr
Bringing jobs to foreground:
You can bring a to foreground from background with the command, fg.
- If only one job is in the background, the fg command alone will be bring it to the foreground.
- If only more than one job is in the background, job number is used with the command, as mentioned earlier.
For cancelling a job, you can force it to end with the kill command. The kill command takes as its arguement either the user job number or the system process number. The user job number must be preceded by a percent sign(%). The job number can be listed using the jobs command.
Suspending or Stopping jobs:
You can suspend a job and stop it with Ctrl+Z key. This places the job to the side until it is restarted. The job is not ended; it merely remains suspended until user wants to continue it. You can restart the job in either the foreground or the background using the fg or bg command.
- The fg command restarts a suspended job in the foreground.
- The bg command places the suspended job in the background.
Ending Processes: ps and kill
You can also cancel a job using the system process number, which you can obtain with the ps command. The ps command will display your processes, and it displays a great deal more information than the jobs command does. The next example lists the processes a user is running. The PID is the system process number, aka, Process ID.
You can reference the PID in a kill command directly, without preceding % sign.
In the upcoming Linux article, we’ll be going over the basics of shell scripts and shell script programming.
Keep coding! Have fun.